Last update :
10/08/2022
Antiepileptic   Phenytoin sodium  
Injection
Stability in solutions Stability of mixtures Factors which affect stability Compatibility Route of administration References Pdf
   Chemical structure  

Tradename   Tradename     

Trade names are indicative and excipients composition can be different depending on the country and manufacturers

Aurantin Italy
Diphantoine Belgium, Netherlands
Epanutin Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Netherlands, Poland, Turkey
Hidantal Brazil
Phenhydan Switzerland
References   Injection   References : Phenytoin sodium  
Type Publication
73 Journal Lor E, Takagi J.
Visual compatibility of foscarnet with other injectable drugs.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1990 ; 47: 157-159.
198 Journal Gayed AA, Kheshary PR, Hinkle RL.
Visual compatibility of diltiazem injection with various diluents and medications during simulated Y-site injection.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1995 ; 52: 516-520.
201 Journal Thompson DF, Allen LV, Stiles ML.
Visual compatibility of enalaprilate with selected intravenous medications during simulated Y-site injection.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1990 ; 47: 2530-2531.
226 Journal Walker SE, DeAngelis C, Iazzetta J.
Stability and compatibility of combinations of hydromorphone and a second drug.
Can J Hosp Pharm 1991 ; 44: 289-295.
288 Journal Cervenka P, Dejong DJ, Butler BL, Monzingo MD.
Visual compatibility of injectable ciprofloxacin lactate with selected injectable drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Hosp Pharm 1992 ; 27: 957-958,961-962.
300 Journal Trissel LA, Gilbert DL, Martinez JF.
Compatibility of propofol injectable emulsion with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1997 ; 54: 1287-1292.
310 Journal Markowsky SJ, Kohls PR, Ehresman D, Leppik I.
Compatibility and pH variability of four injectable phenytoin sodium products.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1991 ; 48: 510-514.
317 Journal Kershaw BP, Monnier HL, Mason JH.
Visual compatibility of premixed theophylline or heparin with selected drugs for IV administration.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1993 ; 50: 1360-1362.
384 Journal Colucci RD, Cobuzzi LE, Halpern NA.
Visual compatibility of esmolol hydrochloride and various injectable drugs during simulated Y-site injection.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1988 ; 45: 630-632.
397 Journal Fong PA, Ward J.
Visual compatibility of intravenous famotidine with selected drugs.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1989 ; 46: 125-126.
479 Journal Min DI, Brown T, HWang GC.
Visual compatibility of tacrolimus with commonly used drugs during simulated Y-site injection.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1992 ; 49: 2964-2966.
496 Journal Lor E, Sheybani T, Takagi J.
Visual compatibility of fluconazole with commonly used injectable drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1991 ; 48: 744-746.
619 Journal Kirschenbaum HL, Aronoff W, Perentesis GP, Plitz GW, Cutie AJ.
Stability and compatibility of lidocaine hydrochloride with selected large-volume parenterals and drugs additives.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1982 ; 39: 1013-1015.
642 Journal Baumgartner TG, Knudsen AK, Dunn AJ, Kilroy RA.
Norepinephrine stability in saline solutions.
Hosp Pharm 1988 ; 23: 44,49, 59.
660 Journal Michaels MR, Stauffer GL, Haas DP.
Propofol compatibility with other intravenous drug products - Two new methods of evaluating IV emulsion compatibility.
Ann Pharmacotherapy 1996 ; 30: 228-232.
706 Journal Cutie MR.
Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride with other additives.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1981 ; 38: 231.
707 Journal Carmichael RR, Mahoney CD, Jeffrey LP.
Solubility and stability of phenytoin sodium when mixed with intravenous solutions.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1980 ; 37: 95-98.
730 Journal Allen LV, Saul Levinson R, Phisutsinthop D.
Compatibility of various admixtures with secondary additives at Y-injection site of intravenous administration sets.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1977 ; 34: 939-943.
789 Journal Garner SS, Wiest DB.
Compatibility of drugs separated by a fluid barrier in a retrograde intravenous infusion system.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1990 ; 47: 604-606.
921 Journal Trissel LA, Gilbert DL, Martinez JF.
Incompatibility and compatibility of amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex with selected other drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Hosp Pharm 1998 ; 33: 284-292.
939 Journal Gilbar PJ, Groves CF.
Visual compatibility of total parenteral nutrition solution (Synthamin 17 Premix*) with selected drugs during simulated Y-site injection.
Aust J Hosp Pharm 1994 ; 24: 167-170.
1041 Journal Hasegawa GR, Eder JF.
Visual compatibility of dobutamine hydrochloride with other injectable drugs.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1984 ; 41: 949-951.
1049 Journal Klamerus KJ, Ueda CT, Newton DW.
Stability of nitroglycerin in intravenous admixtures.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1984 ; 41: 303-305.
1058 Journal Kirschenbaum HL, Aronoff W, Piltz GW, Perentesis GP, Cutie AJ.
Compatibility and stability of dobutamine hydrochloride with large-volume parenterals and selected additives.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1983 ; 40: 1690-1691.
1169 Journal Pfeifle CE, Adler DS, Gannaway WL.
Phenytoin sodium solubility in three intravenous solutions.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1981 ; 38: 358-362.
1193 Journal Perentesis GP, Plitz GW, Kirschenbaum HL, Navalakha P, Aronoff W, Cutie AJ.
Stability and visual compatibility of bretylium tosylate with selected large-volume parenterals and additives.
Am J Hosp Pharm 1983 ; 40: 1010-1012.
1625 Journal Trissel LA, Saenz C, Williams YW, Ingram D.
Incompatibilities of lansoprazole injection with other drugs during simulated Y-site coadministration.
Int J Pharm Compound 2001 ; 5: 314-321.
1703 Journal Schuster F, Bernard R.
Kompatibilität von enalaprilat i.v. mit ausgewählten arzneimitteln.
Krankenhauspharmazie 1995 ; 16: 101-103.
1803 Journal Trissel, LA, Saenz CA, Ogundele OB, Ingram D, Baker MB.
Compatibility of fenoldopam mesylate with other drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2003 ; 60: 80-85.
1925 Journal Trissel LA , Williams KY, Gilbert DL.
Compatibility screening of linezolid injection during simulated Y-site administration with other drugs and infusion solutions.
J Am Pharm Assoc 2000 ; 40: 515-519.
1974 Journal Chandler SW, Trissel LA, Weinstein SM
Combined administration of opoids with selected drugs to manage pain and other cancer symptoms initial safety screening for compatibility.
J Pain Symptom Manage 1996 ; 12, 3: 168-171.
2017 Journal Barker B, Feddema S, Rusho WJ, Dengg R.
Visual compatibility of vasopressin with other injectable drugs.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2005 ; 62: 1969-1976.
2074 Journal Tse T, Abdullah R.
Dissolving phenytoin precipitate in central venous access device.
Ann Intern Med 1998 ; 128: 1049.
2090 Journal Pere H, Chasse V, Forest JM, Hildgen P.
Compatibility of injectable pantoprazole in Y-site administration.
Pharmactuel 2004 ; 37: 193-196.
2108 Journal Trusley C, Kupiec TC, Trissel LA.
Compatibility of micafungin injection with other drugs during simulated Y-site co-administration.
Int J Pharm Compound 2006 ; 10: 230-232.
2109 Journal Pelletier E, Forest JM, Hildgen P.
Compatibilité de la kétamine injectable lors de l’administration en dérivé avec d’autres médicaments usuels.
Pharmactuel 2006 ; 39: 71-75.
2141 Journal Barinian N, Chanteux H, Viaene E, Servais H, Tulkens PM.
Stability and compatibility study of cefepime in comparaison with ceftazidime for potential administration by continuous infusion under conditions pertinent to ambulatory treatment of cystic fibrosis patients and to administration in intensive care units.
J Antimicrob Chemother 2003 ; 51: 651-658.
2231 Journal de Jongh R, Hens R, Basma V, mouton JW, Tulkens PM, Carryn S.
Continuous versus intermittent infusion of temocillin, a directed spectrum penicillin for intensive care patients with nosocomial pneumonia: stability, compatibility, population pharmacokinetic studies and breakpoint selection.
J Antimicrob Chemother 2008 ; 61, 2: 382-388.
3012 Journal Sullivan T, Forrest J.M, Leclair G.
Compatibility of Cloxacillin Sodium with Selected Intravenous Drugs During Simulated Y-Site Administration
Hosp Pharm 2015 ; 50, 3: 214-220.
3152 Journal Kumar A, Mann HJ.
Visual compatibility of oritavancin diphosphate with selected coadministered drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2010 ; 67: 1640-1644.
3184 Manufacturer
Hyaluronidase (Hyalase®) - Summary of Product characteristics.
CP Pharmaceuticals 2005
3216 Journal Legris ME, Valiquette ME, Lavoie A, Forest JM, Leclair G.
Compatibilité physique par évaluation visuelle du salbutamol injectable lors de son administration en Y.
Pharmactuel 2011 ; 44, 1 : 14-18
3315 Poster Louvrier M, Dhennain S, Hocahrt S, Zawadski E, Bouffart S, Moquay E.
Mise en évidence d'une incompatibilité physico-chimique entre la phénytoïne sodique et le paracétamol injectable en flacon.
Communication orale Hopipharm 2012
3316 Journal Onuki Y, Ikegami-Kawai M, Ishitsuka K, Hayashi Y, Takayama K.
A 5% Glucose Infusion Fluid Provokes Significant Precipitation of Phenytoin Sodium Injection via Interruption of the Cosolvent Effect of Propylene Glycol.
Chem Pharm Bull 2012 ; 60, 1: 86-93.
3372 Journal Hanci V, Ali Kiraz H, Ömür D, Ekin S, Uyan B, Yurtlu B.S.
Precipitation in Gallipoli: Sugammadex / Amiodarone & Sugammadex / Dobutamine & Sugammadex / Protamine.
Rev Bras Anestesiol 2013 ; 63, 1: 163-166.
3385 Journal Raverdi V, Ampe E, Hecq JD, Tulkens PM.
Stability and compatibility of vancomycin for administration by continuous infusion.
J Antimicrob Chemother 2013 ; 68: 1179-1182.
3408 Journal Tollec S, Touzin K, Pelletier E, Forest J.M.
Evaluation visuelle de la compatibilité physique de la naloxone avec d’autres médicaments intraveineux usuels.
Pharmactuel 2013 ; 46, 1 : 16-21.
3421 Journal Leung E, Venkatesan N, Ly S.C, Scheetz M.H.
Physical compatibility of vancomycin and piperacillin sodium–tazobactam at concentrations typically used during prolonged infusions.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2013 ;70:1163-1166.
3525 Manufacturer Pethidine hydrochloride - Summary of product Characteristics
AMCO Amdipharm Mercury 2012
3526 Manufacturer Clindamycin (Dalacin®) - Summary of Product Characteristics
Pharmacia 2010
3531 Manufacturer Morphine sulphate 10 mg/mL injection BP – Summary of Product Characteristics
Wockhardt 2014
3549 Manufacturer Amikacine B Braun - Résumé des caractéristiques du produit.
B Braun 2012
3560 Manufacturer Linezolid (Zyvox®) - Summary of Product Characteristics
Pharmacia 2013
3588 Manufacturer Vancomycine (Vancocin®) - Résumé des caractéristiques du produit
Sandoz 2011
3617 Manufacturer Hyaluronidase (Hyalase®) - Summary of Product Characteristics
Wockhardt 2011
3620 Manufacturer Phenylephrine - Summary of Product Characteristics
Beacon Pharmaceuticals 2012
3674 Manufacturer Erythromycin lactobionate - Summary of Product Characteristics
PanPharma 2016
3767 Journal Legris M.E, Lavoie A, Forrest J.M, Hildgen P.
Compatibilité par évaluation visuelle du thiopental injectable lors de son administration en Y avec des médicaments usuels.
Pharmactuel 2014 ; 47, 3 : 167-172.
3827 Poster Ghazi I.M, Hamada Y, Nicolau D.P.
Compatibility of tedizolid phosphate with selected intravenous drugs via simulated Y-site conditions.
ASHP Midyear 2015 2015
3828 Poster Thabit A.K, Hamada Y, Nicolau D.P.
Ceftozolane/tazobactam physical compatibility during simulated Y-site administration.
ASHP Midyear 2015 2015
3829 Poster So W, Kim L, Thabit A.K, Nicolau D.P, Kuti J.L.
Compatibility of isavunazonium sulfate during simulated Y-site administration.
ASHP Midyear 2015 2015
3932 Manufacturer Hydroxocobalamine (Cyanokit®) - Résumé des caractéristiques du produit
Serb Laboratoire 2015
3964 Journal Audet M.A, Forest E, Friciu M, Forest J.M, Leclair G.
Compatibilité du citrate de caféine injectable avec plusieurs autres médicaments.
Pharmactuel 2017 ; 50,1 : 27-33.
4055 Journal Monogue M, Almarzoky Abuhussain S, Kuti J, Nicolau D.
Physical compatibility of fosfomycin for injection with select i.v. drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2018 , 75, 1:36-44
4145 Journal Asempa T.E, Avery L.M, Kidd J.M, Kuti J.L, Nicolau D.P.
Physical compatibility of plazomicin with select i.v. drugs during simulated Y-site administration.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2018 ;75,14:1048-1056
4319 Journal Lessard J-J, Caron E, Schérer H, Forest J-M, Leclair G.
Compatibility of Y-site Injection of Meropenem Trihydrate With 101 Other Injectable Drugs.
Hosp Pharm 2020 ; 55, 5: 332-337.
4428 Journal Rashed S.M, Sweatman T.W, Thoma L, Hovinga C.A, Phelps S.J.
Chemical Compatibility of Depacon® with Medications Frequently Administered by Intravenous Y-Site Delivery in Patients with Epilepsy or Head Trauma.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2004 ; 9, 2: 126-132.
4433 Journal Ghazi I.M, El Nekidy W.S, Sood A, Dulku A, Patel R, Patel K.
Y-site Administration of Imipenem/Cilastatin/ Relebactam With Common Intravenous Medications
Clin Ther 2020 ; 42, 3: 475-485.
4435 Journal Hanifah S, Nugroho B.H, Chabib L.
Compatibility of acetaminophen with central nervous system medications during simulated Y-site injection.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2020 ; 52, 1: 23-27.
4528 Journal Lu J, Liu Q, Kupiec T, Vail H, Lunch L, Fam D, Vu N.
Physical Compatibility of Cefiderocol with Selected Intravenous Drugs During Simulated Y-site Administration.
Int J Pharm Compound 2021 ;25,1:52-61
4603 Journal Vallée M, Barthélémy I, Friciu M, Pelletier E, Forest J.M, Benoit F, Leclair G.
Compatibility of Lactated Ringer’s Injection With 94 Selected Intravenous Drugs During Simulated Y-site Administration.
Hosp Pharm 2021 ; 56, 4: 228-234.

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